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Puppet shows are very common and entertaining. Chinese puppetry, on the other hand, is a traditional culture that began as early as the 10th Century during the Sung Dynasty. Two forms of Chinese puppetry include marionette theater and shadow theater. Both forms were highly developed even back in the Sung Dynasty. In China, puppetry is considered to be an art of tremendous visual and aural attraction.

In Taiwan, there is an additional form of puppetry called the glove puppet theater. Immigrants from the southern coast of the Chinese mainland introduced puppetry to Taiwan in the early 19th Century. With the advancement in time, puppetry in Taiwan acquired its own distinct cultural features and artistic styles. The most widely used puppetry is the string marionette. Shows are based on religious purposes other than entertaining audiences. Some consider puppet shows to be a form of appreciation to the gods or to drive away evil.

Shadow puppetry in Taiwan originated from the Chaochow School of shadow puppetry. Shadow plays were popular in Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Pingtung during the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911AD). This method of puppetry is based on light penetrating through a translucent sheet of cloth; the shadows are silhouettes seen by audience in profile or face on. These plays are often supplemented by 'priest melodies', which are considered to be a priceless assets.

Glove puppetry is more popular in the Fukien province. Puppeteers had to be creative and talented with good performing skills. Plots were usually well-knit, action-packed, and filled with scenes that were choreographed to match the accompanying 'pei-kuan' music.

In order to survive, puppetry had to adapt to the new changes in trends. Most aspects of puppetry have now been altered to suit the demands of the more prevalent viewers. In spite of that, puppetry still prevails in religious ceremonies and folk festivals.

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